Information On Haiti

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About Haiti

Timeline

15th century

1492
Christopher Columbus landed near today’s city of Cap-Haïtien and claimed the island for Spain, naming it Hispaniola.
16th century

1503
The first Africans were brought to Hispaniola for labor.
1508
Ferdinand II of Aragon officially established Spain’s African slave trade.
1528
Don Sebastián Ramirez de Fuente became the first Catholic bishop of the island.
1592
Queen Anacaona, leader of the last Taino kingdom in Haiti, is executed by Spanish governor.
17th century

1625
The French settled Tortuga Island and northwestern Hispaniola, naming their colony Saint-Domingue.
1665
The city of Port-de-Paix was founded on the northwest coast by French settlers.
1670
Louis XIV of France authorized the African slave trade in Saint-Domingue.
1685
Louis XIV enacted the Code Noir, regulating slavery in Saint-Domingue and the rest of the French colonial empire.
1697
Spain signed the Treaty of Ryswick, under whose terms she ceded the western third of Hispaniola to France.

18th century

1749
The city of Port-au-Prince was founded by Charles Burnier, Marquis of Larnage and named the capital of Saint-Domingue.
1751
Slave rebellions in northern Saint-Domingue, led by François Mackandal, began.
1758
Mackandal was captured and publicly executed in Cap-Français.
1778
Volunteer Haitian slaves, led by French admiral Count d’Estaing, left for Savannah, Georgia to fight against the British in the American Revolutionary War.
1791
February 25     Vincent Ogé and Jean-Baptiste Chavannes, proponents of equal rights for free blacks and mulattos and leaders of an armed rebellion, were publicly executed in Cap-Français.

August 7     The Conseil des Représentants de la Commune was founded by affranchis to demand equal rights. Pinchinat was named president of the council.

August 14     Haitian Revolution: Dutty Boukman held a Vodou ceremony in Bois-Caïman, where hundreds of slaves vowed to die for liberty.
August 20     A force of Africans and slaves defeated the Europeans near Port-au-Prince.

August 22     Rebel leader Dutty Boukman was killed in a major revolt led by himself, Jean François, Georges Biassou, and Jeannot.

September 24     The Concordat de Damiens was signed, granting political rights to the affranchis.

November     The First Civil Commission, comprising Roume, Mirbeck, and Saint-Léger, arrived in Cap-Français to restore order.

1792
April 4     France’s Legislative Assembly voted to give full citizenship and equal rights to all free people of color.
September 18     The Second Civil Commission, comprising Léger-Félicité Sonthonax, Polvérel, and Ailhaud, arrived in Cap-Français to execute the law of April 4.

1793
April 12     A force led by the Second Civil Commission and affranchis defeated white colonists in a fight to enforce the law of April 4.
Toussaint Louverture offered his services as a military commander to the Spanish.

June 20     French colonial forces, under the authority of the Second Civil Commission, put down a revolt led by the white planter Galbaud.
Henri Christophe was promoted to the captaincy of the French colonial forces, but soon removed when accused of adultery.
British troops landed in Saint-Domingue.

June     Toussaint, fighting for Spain, captured the city of Dondon.

August 13     Toussaint defeated the French general Desfourneaux at Ennery.

August 29     Sonthonax, without approval from the French government, declared the abolition of slavery in northern Saint-Domingue.

December 6     Toussaint captured Gonaïves for Spain.

1794
February 4     The French National Convention declared the abolition of slavery in all French colonies.
May     Toussaint left the Spanish and joined the French forces.

June 1     The British captured Port-au-Prince from Colonel Montbrun of France.

October 21     Toussaint captured the cities of Saint-Michel and Saint-Raphaël for the French.

1795
October 13     Toussaint captured the city of Dondon a second time, this time for France.

October 14     The Treaty of Bâle was ratified, ending Spain’s involvement in the conflict and surrendering the eastern part of Hispaniola to France.

1796
March 30     Toussaint rescued French commander Laveaux from mulatto rebel Villatte; Laveaux appointed Toussaint the Lieutenant-Governor of Saint-Domingue.

May 11     The Third Civil Commission, comprising Sonthonax, Roume, Giraud, Leblanc, and Julien Raymond, arrived in Saint-Domingue to establish diplomatic relations between France and the colony.

1797
May 1     Sonthonax appointed Toussaint the commander-in-chief of the French colonial forces.

1798
April 20     General Hédouville arrived in Cap-Français on the orders of the French government in order to oppose the ambition of Toussaint Louverture.

August 31     British general Maitland agreed to evacuate Môle Saint-Nicolas and surrender his troops to Toussaint.

1799
January 12     The generals of the colony – Toussaint, André Rigaud, Bauvais, and Laplume – met in Port-au-Prince and named Toussaint the lead commander. Rigaud surrendered control of the southern cities of Léogâne, Grand-Goâve, Petit-Goâve, and Miragoâne.

19th century

1801
January 27     Toussaint invaded the eastern part of Hispaniola and captured Santo Domingo, declaring freedom for all slaves and appointing a ten-member Central Assembly to issue a constitution.

July 8
The Constitution of 1801 was promulgated, under which Toussaint Louverture was to be Governor General for life.

1802
January 29     A French expeditionary force, sent by Napoleon Bonaparte and led by his brother-in-law Charles Leclerc, arrived in Samana Bay.

February 1     French vessels arrived at Cap-Français.

February 4     Henri Christophe burned Cap-Français to resist the French troops.

February 23     Battle of Ravine-à-Couleuvres: French forces defeated Toussaint.

March     Toussaint was defeated by French forces.

March 4     Battle of Crête-à-Pierrot: The battle began.

March 24     Battle of Crête-à-Pierrot: The battle ended with a French victory over Jean-Jacques Dessalines.

May 6     Toussaint arrived in Cap-Français to negotiate his surrender to the French.
June 7     Toussaint was arrested by General Leclerc and shipped to France, where he was imprisoned.

October 13     Dessalines, now Commander-in-Chief of the revolutionary forces, met with Alexandre Pétion in Haut-du-Cap to plan further military action.

November 1     Commander of the French forces General Leclerc died of yellow fever. He was succeeded by Donatien-Marie-Joseph de Vimeur, vicomte de Rochambeau.

1803
April 7     Toussaint died in the French prison of Fort de Joux.

May 18     The flag of Haiti was created during a meeting between Dessalines and Pétion in l’Arcahaie and sewn by Catherine Flon.

November 18     Battle of Vertières: During the last major battle of the revolution, Haitian forces under Dessalines and Pétion defeated the French.

November 19     French general Rochambeau signs a document of surrender and agrees to evacuate French troops from Saint-Domingue; Rochambeau is later given as a prisoner to the British.

November 29     Dessalines’ army arrives in Cap-Français; Christophe and Clerveaux issue a preliminary declaration of independence.

December 4     French forces surrender Môle Saint-Nicolas to Dessalines’ army, officially ending French presence on the island

1804
January 1     Dessalines, in Gonaïves, declares Haiti an independent nation and becomes Governor-General

September 22     Dessalines proclaims himself Emperor of Haiti

October 6     Dessalines becomes Emperor Jacques I in a coronation ceremony at Cap-Français

1805
May 20     Dessalines formulates the first constitution of Haiti as an independent country, the Imperial Constitution of 1805.

1806
October 17     Dessalines is assassinated at Pont-Rouge by disaffected leaders of his administration

December 27     During a meeting at a cathedral in Port-au-Prince, the Constituent Assembly creates a new constitution and appoints Henri Christophe to a four-year term as President of the Republic of Haiti

1807
January 1     The Battle of Sibert ends with the division of Haiti into the southern Republic of Haiti under Alexandre Pétion and the northern State of Haiti under Christophe.

February 17     Henri Christophe names himself President of the State of Haiti; a state council (7 generals and 2 civilians) appointed by Christophe meets in Cap-Haïtien and votes the Constitutional Act of Haiti.

March 9     Pétion is elected President of the Republic of Haiti by the Constituent Assembly under the Constitution of 1806.

1809
Louis XVIII of France sends a delegation to negotiate France’s recognition of Haitian independence; Pétion meets with a French delegate, Dauxion-Lavaysse, and agrees to an indemnity payable to dispossessed French planters.

1811
March 9     Pétion is elected to a second four-year term as President of the Republic of Haiti
March 26     Christophe proclaims himself King Henri I of the northern Haitian state, now known as the Kingdom of Haiti.

May 28     The Kingdom of Haiti promulgates the Royal Constitution of Henri I.

June 2     Christophe is crowned as King Henri I in Cap-Haïtien
1812.

February 24     The Kingdom of Haiti establishes a civil code, the Henri Code.

1814
November     Christophe refuses to negotiate with French delegate Franco de Medina concerning France’s recognition of Haitian independence.

1816
June 2     Pétion promulgates the Republican Constitution.

October 8     Louis XVIII of France sends another delegation to negotiate France’s recognition of Haitian independence; Pétion cuts off negotiation, Christophe declines to meet the delegates.

1818
March 29     Pétion, President of the Republic of Haiti, dies of fever.

March 30     Jean-Pierre Boyer, Chief of the Presidential Guard, is appointed President-for-Life of the Republic of Haiti.

1820
October 8     Christophe, King of the northern Haitian state, commits suicide
October 26     Boyer promulgates the Republican Constitution in Christophe’s northern state; northern and southern Haiti are unified

1822
February 9     Boyer arrives in Santo Domingo and declares control over the entire island of Hispaniola

1825
April 17     King Charles X of France signs an ordinance which conditionally recognizes the independence of Haiti and imposes a 150 million franc indemnity on the Haitian government.

July 3     A squadron of French ships arrives in Haiti to deliver the news of Charles X’s ordinance of April 17 to President Boyer.

1831
September 22     The city of Pétionville, a suburb of Port-au-Prince named for Alexandre Pétion, is founded by Boyer

1838
Haiti’s remaining debt to France, 120 million francs, is reduced to 60 million francs.

1842
May 7     An earthquake stikes northern Haiti, destroying the city of Cap-Haïtien (1842 Cap-Haïtien earthquake)

1843
March 13     President Boyer is overthrown and flees to Paris in exile.

September 18     The Constituent Assembly begins formulating the Constitution of 1843; it will take more than three months to finish

December 31     The Constitution of 1843 is released and Charles Riviere-Hérard is appointed President of Haiti.

1844
February 28     The Dominican Republic declares its independence from Haiti.

April 4     The Piquets, peasants of southern Haiti led by Jean-Jacques Acaau, revolt against the government.

May 3     The Piquets force Riviere-Hérard into exile; Philippe Guerrier is appointed President of Haiti.

1845
April 15     President Guerrier dies in office; the State Council appoints Jean-Louis Pierrot President of Haiti

1846
March 1     President Pierrot is overthrown; Jean-Baptiste Riché becomes President of Haiti.

1847
Haitian historian Thomas Madiou publishes the first volume of his seminal work Histoire d’Haïti (“History of Haiti”).

February 27     President Riché dies in office.

March 1     Faustin Élie Soulouque is elected President of Haiti.
1852
April 18     President Faustin Soulouque is crowned Emperor Faustin I of Haiti.

1858
December     Forces led by Fabre Geffrard defeat Emperor Faustin’s Imperial Army.

1859
January 13     Fabre Geffrard is elected President of Haiti.

1860
March 28     Haiti and the Vatican sign an agreement which divides Haiti into five dioceses

1862
The United States recognizes Haiti
December 15     Rhum Barbancourt is first produced.

1865
Céligny Ardouin’s eleven-volume work on the history of Haiti, Essais sur l’Histoire d’Haïti, is published.

1867
President Geffrard is forced to flee the country.

Sylvain Salnave is elected President of Haiti.

The Constitution of 1867 is voted.

1869
The National Assembly elects Nissage Saget to a four-year term as President of Haiti after the overthrow of Salnave.

1870
Haitian writer Demesvar Delorme publishes the essay “Les Théoriciens au Pouvoir”, which maintains that political power should be in the hands of the intellectual elite.

1874
Saget relinquishes the Presidency; the Constituent Assembly elects Michel Domingue as President.

President Domingue promulgates the Constitution of 1874.

1875
President Domingue signs a treaty of peace and friendship with the Dominican Republic.

1876
President Domingue is overthrown; the Constituent Assembly elects Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal to a four-year term as President.

1879
The Constituent Assembly elects Lysius Salomon as President; President Salomon would institute many reforms and pay off Haiti’s remaining debt to France for independence.

1880
The National Bank of Haiti (or Haitian Central Bank) is founded by President Salomon.

1882
Port-au-Prince and Haiti are dedicated to Our Lady of Perpetual Help during a mass in Bel Air.

1883
Haitian poet Oswald Durand composes his most famous work, Choucoune.

1884
Haitian writer Louis-Joseph Janvier publishes the article “L’Egalité des Races”, which proclaims the equality of the races.

1885
Haitian writer Anténor Firmin publishes the book De l’Égalité des Races Humaines, which proclaims the equality of the races.

1888
President Salomon is overthrown; the Constituent Assembly installs a provisional government.

The Constituent Assembly elects François Denys Légitime to the presidency.

1889
President Légitime is overthrown; the Constituent Assembly installs a provisional government.

The Constituent Assembly elects Florvil Hyppolite to a seven-year term as president.

1893
Haitian writer Hannibal Price publishes De la Réhabilitation de la Race Noire par la République d’Haïti (“On the Rehabilitation of the Black Race by the Republic of Haiti”) in response to Spenser St. John’s Hayti or the Black Republic.

1896
President Hyppolite dies of a heart attack; Tirésias Simon Sam is elected to a seven-year term as president
20th century.

1902
President Simon Sam resigns; Pierre Nord Alexis becomes president.

1904
January 1     Haiti celebrates 100 years of independence

1908
Pierre Nord Alexis withdraws from the presidency; the Constituent Assembly appoints François C. Antoine Simon president.

1911
President Antoine Simon cedes the presidency to Cincinnatus Leconte.

1912
January 30     The Haitian Federation of Soccer is created.
August 5     The Haitian American Sugar Company is founded.

August 8     President Leconte and 300 soldiers are killed in an explosion at the National Palace; the Constituent Assembly appoints Tancrède Auguste president.

1913
President Auguste dies during a visit to northern Haiti.

Senator Michel Oreste is elected president by the Constituent Assembly.

1914
President Oreste is overthrown and succeeded by Oreste Zamor.

President Zamor is overthrown and succeeded by Joseph Davilmar Théodore.

1915
President Théodore resigns and is succeeded by Vilbrun Guillaume Sam.

July 28     Three thousand United States Marines, led by Admiral William B. Caperton, enter Port-au-Prince; beginning of the 19 year U.S. occupation of Haiti.

August 12     Senator Philippe Sudré Dartiguenave is elected by the Constituent Assembly to a seven-year term as president.

1919
April 12     The Haitian government undertakes a monetary reform with the National Bank of Haiti.

October 31     Charlemagne Péralte, leader of the resistance against U.S. occupation, is assassinated.

1920
Haitian writer Leon Laleau publishes his first compilation of poems, A Voix Basse.

1921
January 24     President Dartiguenave addresses United States President Warren G. Harding concerning the needs of the Haitian people.

April 12     United States President Harding responds to President Dartiguenave

1922
April 10     Louis Bornó is elected to a four-year term as president by the State Council
May 15     President Dartiguenave’s term ends; Louis Bornó is sworn into office

December 28     The Central School of Agriculture (Ecole Centrale d’Agriculture) is founded in Damien.

1926
President Bornó is re-elected by the State Council and makes a diplomatic trip to the United States

Haitian writer Leon Laleau publishes his second compilation of poems, La Flèche au Cœur.

1928
Haitian writer Jean Price-Mars publishes his acclaimed novel Ainsi Parla l’Oncle (“So spoke the Uncle”)

Leon Laleau publishes two more compilations of poems, Le Rayon des Jupes and Abréviations.

1929
January 21     Haiti and the Dominican Republic sign an agreement settling the border between the two countries.

1930
February 28     The Forbes Commission, sent by U.S. president Herbert Hoover to investigate Haiti’s political situation, arrives in the country.

April 21     Louis Eugène Roy is designated temporary president by state decree.

November 18     Senator Sténio Vincent is elected to a six-year term as president.

December 10     Fietta, the first Apostolic Nuncio (diplomatic representative of the Roman Catholic Church) to Haiti, arrives in Port-au-Prince.

1931
Jacques Roumain publishes his acclaimed novel Gouverneurs de la Rosée (“Masters of the Dew”).

August 5     The U.S. agrees to hand over control of the Offices of Public Works, Health, Agriculture and Education to the Haitian government.

December 15     The ceremony commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the dedication of Port-au-Prince to the Virgin Mary, led by Archbishop Joseph Legouaze, began.

December 17     The anniversary ceremony ended.

1933
August 7     The governments of Haiti and the United States sign an agreement on the withdrawal of U.S. troops from the country and the end of the U.S. occupation.

October 18     President Vincent of Haiti and President Rafael Leónidas Trujillo of the Dominican Republic meet for diplomatic talks in Ouanaminthe in northeastern Haiti, near the Dominican border.

1934
July 5     President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt visits Cap-Haïtien.

August 14     Last American forces withdraw from Haiti, ending the U.S. occupation.

August 21     The flag of Haiti is raised at Casernes Dessalines, where it was lowered nineteen years earlier at the start of the U.S. occupation.

1935
May 16     A new constitution is released, reinforcing the authority of the executive branch of government and renewing President Sténio Vincent’s mandate for five more years.

1937
Between 17,000 to 35,000 Haitians living in the Dominican Republic are massacred by the Dominican armed forces on the orders of President Rafael Trujillo. U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull later declared “President Trujillo is one of the greatest men in Central America and in most of South America.”

1938
May 18     The 135th anniversary of the flag of Haiti is celebrated with athletic festivities at the Champs-de-Mars in Port-au-Prince.

1940
Haiti’s national library, the Bibliothèque Nationale d’Haïti is organized
1941
April 14     Élie Lescot is elected to a five-year term as president.

May 15     President Vincent’s term ends; Élie Lescot takes office.

1944
May 7     The Cathedral of Cap-Haïtien is consecrated after 100 years of restoration work.

May 14     The Centre d’Art is founded; it exhibits important Haitian art works.

1946
A military coup forces President Lescot to resign; the newly-created Executive Military Committee appoints Dumarsais Estimé president and an earthquake that was magnutide 8.1.

1948
February 16     The government-owned tobacco company Régie du Tabac et des Allumettes is founded.

1949
December 8     The bicentennial of Port-au-Prince’s founding is celebrated; a World’s Fair, the Exposition internationale du bicentenaire de Port-au-Prince, is held.

1950
May 10     Dumarsais Estimé reliinquishes the presidency and is replaced by a provisional government.

October 8     Presidential and legislative elections are held; Colonel Paul Magloire becomes the first president of Haiti to be elected directly by the people, the Delegates, and the Senators.

December 6     Paul Magloire is sworn in as president.

1951
President Magloire of Haiti and President Trujillo of the Dominican Republic meet for diplomatic talks

The Haitian Institute of Statistics (Institut Haïtien de Statistique) and the Haitian Institute of Farming and Industrial Credit (Institut Haïtien de Crédit Agricole et Industriel) are established by the government.

1953
May 31     Father Rémy Augustin, the first native Haitian bishop, is consecrated at the Cathedral of Port-au-Prince.

1954
January 1     A celebration commemorating the 150th anniversary of Haiti’s independence from France, during which monuments to the “heroes of independence” are inaugurated in Port-au-Prince, began.

January 4     The celebration ended.

1955
January 26     President Magloire and his wife began a trip to the United States, Canada, and Jamaica.

February 17     Magloire’s trip ended.

March 3     Vice-President of the United States Richard Nixon and his wife began a visit to Haiti.

March 5     Nixon’s trip ended.

1956
President Magloire relinquishes the presidency; President of the Supreme Court Joseph Nemours Pierre-Louis becomes provisional president of Haiti.

1957
Franck Sylvain is elected President of Haiti, but is succeeded by a thirteen-member Executive Council of Government

Daniel Fignolé is elected President of Haiti, but is replaced by a Military Council of Government.

October 22     Dr. François “Papa Doc” Duvalier is elected President of Haiti.

1958
Duvalier began to attack his opponents violently, driving many of them into exile.

1964
Duvalier’s reign of terror ended.

The National Assembly votes to accept the Duvalieriste Constitution, establishing Duvalier as President for Life of Haiti.

1968
October 28     François Wolf Ligondé, the first Haitian archbishop, is consecrated at the Cathedral of Port-au-Prince.

1970
Thousands of Haitians began to flee poverty and repression in Haiti by boat, often arriving in south Florida.

1971
February     The National Assembly approves an amendment to the constitution, allowing President For Life Duvalier to name his son, Jean-Claude Duvalier, as his successor.

April 21     President for Life François Duvalier dies in Port-au-Prince.
April 22     Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier succeeds his father as President for Life.

1974
The Haiti national football team participates in the FIFA World Cup for the first time.

1977
August 15     The U.S. ambassador to the United Nations commission arrives in Haiti; the commission meets with the Haitian government to discuss civil rights in Haiti.

1980
May 27     President for Life Jean-Claude Duvalier marries Michèle Bennett.

1983
March     Pope John Paul II arrives in Haiti, becoming the first Pope to visit the country.

August 27     The constitution is amended, creating the post of State Minister and allowing the President to name his successor.

1985
June 6     President for Life Duvalier amends the constitution to allow the creation of the post of Prime Minister of Haiti.

July     A referendum is approved by 99.48% of voters, allowing political parties to participate in the government and recognizing the Presidency for Life of Jean-Claude Duvalier
July     A constitutional amendment on the Presidency for Life is passed
November 28     Three schoolboys (Jean-Robert Cius, Daniel Israël, and Mackenson Michel) are killed during an anti-government demonstration in Gonaïves.

1986
January 31     Rumors spread through Port-au-Prince that President Duvalier has fled the country.

February 3     President Duvalier and members of his cabinet visit commercial and residential areas of Port-au-Prince as a show of power.

February 7     President Jean-Claude Duvalier flees Haiti for Talloires, France; the National Council of Government (Conseil National de Gouvernement, CNG) is established, led by General Henri Namphy; the Legislative Chamber and Duvalier’s armed forces, Volontaire Sécurité Nationale, are dissolved.

February 25     The original blue and red flag of Haiti is raised at the National Palace, replacing the black and red flag of the Duvalier regime
March     Former President of Haiti Daniel Fignolé returns to Haiti; a second version of the CNG is formed, consisting of Henri Namphy, Williams Régala, and Jacques François.

March 20     More than two thousand students and public transportation drivers of Carrefour demonstrate against the CNG.

April 26     Eight people are killed in an attack by armed groups on Fort-Dimanche.
October 19     Forty-one people are elected to a constituent assembly to draft a new constitution, the CNG appoints twenty more constituents for a total of sixty-one.

1987
March 10     The constituent assembly presents the new constitution, written in both French and Haitian Creole, to President of the CNG Henri Namphy.

March 29     The new constitution is ratified by referendum; the results of 215 voting places show an approximately 99.81% approval rate.

May 13     The CNG publishes a decree electing the members of the Provisional Electoral Council (Conseil Electoral Provisoire, CEP)
May 22     The CEP proclaims itself independent from the CNG.

June 5     The CEP delivers the text of the electoral law to the Minister of Justice.

July     Large landowners (grandons) massacre hundreds of peasants demanding land in Jean-Rabel.

July 17     During a ceremony at the Military Academy, the Haitian Armed Forces swear allegiance to the new 1987 constitution.

November 29     Elections are held, disturbances occur at Ruelle Vaillant in Port-au-Prince; the elections are suspended and General Namphy dissolves the CEP
December 10     General Namphy sets January 17, 1988 as the new election date; the CNG elects a new Provisional Electoral Council (Conseil Electoral Provisoire, CEP).

1988
January     Christian Democrat Leslie Manigat is elected in military-run elections boycotted by the Haitian people and most candidates. In June he is overthrown in military coup by Gen. Namphy. In September Namphy is overthrown by Gen. Prosper Avril.

1990
January     President/General Prosper Avril declares a state of siege in January.

March     Rising protests convince Avril to resign. A Provisional Government led by Supreme Court Justice Ertha Pascal-Trouillot is formed.

December 16     Democratic elections take place. Father Jean-Bertrand Aristide, well known throughout the country for his support of the poor, is elected President with 67.5% of the counted popular vote. The “U.S. favorite” Marc Bazin finishes a distant second with 14.2% .

1991
January     A coup by former Tonton Macoutes head Roger Lafontant is foiled after tens of thousands pour into the streets of the capital, surrounding the National Palace.

February 7     Aristide is sworn in as president.

September 30     A military coup deposes Aristide, who goes into exile first in Venezuela, then in the United States.

Thousands of Haitians begin to flee violence and repression in Haiti by boat. Although most are repatriated to Haiti by the U.S. government, many enter the United States as refugees.

1994
September     The de facto military government resigns at the request of the United States in September, which then sends in troops to occupy Haiti. This occupation is sanctioned by the United Nations.

October 15     The U.S. returns Aristide as president.

1995
The U.S. nominally hands over military authority to the United Nations but maintains effective control of the occupation. Aristide dissolves the Haitian army.

December     Former prime minister René Préval is elected president.

1996
February 7     Aristide leaves office and is succeeded by René Préval.

2000
May     Legislative, municipal and local elections are held. The OAS disputes how the sovereign electoral council calculates the run-offs for eight Senate seats.

November     Aristide is reelected for a second five-year term with 92% of the vote in elections boycotted by the opposition. The last UN peacekeeping forces withdraw from Haiti.

21st century

2001
Aristide succeeds Préval for a second five-year term. For the next two years, and with Washington’s support, Aristide’s opponents use the OAS challenge to the 2000 elections to increase economic and political instability. Former Haitian soldiers carry out guerrilla attacks, primarily along the Dominican border and in the capital.
2004
Haiti’s 200th anniversary of independence.
February 4     A revolt breaks out in the city of Gonaïves, with a local militia hostile to Aristide capturing the city and driving out the police force.

February 22     Rebels capture Haiti’s second-largest city, Cap-Haitien, after just a few hours of fighting, claiming their biggest prize in a two-week uprising that has driven government forces from most of the country’s north.

February 29     Aristide is forced from office via a U.S.-assisted military coup. He is kidnapped, and flown out of Haiti aboard a U.S. military aircraft to South Africa. Boniface Alexandre is inaugurated as interim president.

March     UN Resolution 1529 authorizes a three month multinational interim peacekeeping force. It consists of troops from France, Canada, Chile and the U.S.
September     Hurricane Jeanne kills over 700.

2008
September     Hurricane Hanna leaves more than 500 dead.
November     The Pétionville school collapse and the Grace Divine School collapse.

2010
January 12     A major earthquake, 7.0 on the Richter scale, kills over 230,000 and causes massive damage to buildings and infrastructure in Port-au-Prince.